What are the classifications of "dangerous goods" in cross-border e-commerce? What should I pay attention to during transportation?

In cross-border e-commerce, first-mile transportation is a crucial component, and the nature of the goods determines warehousing classification and distribution. Generally, goods are categorized as "ordinary goods" and "special goods." Ordinary goods refer to general merchandise without specific requirements or restrictions. These goods can be handled and transported using standard shipping methods and procedures, and can be loaded and stored in regular containers.

Special goods include items with unique characteristics such as hazardous materials, perishables, prohibited items, counterfeit goods, and sensitive cargo. Different countries have distinct regulations regarding customs, transportation, and warehousing for special goods.

Hazardous materials typically encompass the following types:

  1. Explosives: International shipping of Class 1 dangerous goods poses significant challenges. Examples include fireworks and firecrackers. Few freight forwarding companies domestically handle these goods for export, often being operated by state-owned enterprises. Transport requirements for Class 1 dangerous goods are stringent, covering qualifications from road transportation to port operations and strict requirements for barge companies. Examples include airbags, pressure pumps, diving pumps, compressed gases, fuses, explosives, fireworks, firecrackers, etc.
  2. Unknown Gases: ① Flammable gases ② Non-flammable non-toxic gases ③ Toxic gases
  3. Flammable Items: Such as cigarettes, alcoholic beverages, ethanol, gas, uninterruptible power supplies, flammable solids, chemical raw materials, ink, dyes, paints, coatings, dry batteries, rechargeable batteries, strong acids, strong alkalis, pesticides, inflatable lighters, and oxidizing agents.
  4. Flammable Liquids: Products such as paint, coatings, adhesives, glue, alcohol, and gasoline fall into this category. These are flammable liquids with relatively high flashpoint requirements, requiring careful control of transportation and storage temperatures.
  5. Oxidizing Substances: Primarily refers to oxidizing agents and organic peroxides. A representative product in this category is bleach containing oxidizing agents. These products can ignite or explode upon contact with water or high temperatures. They require constant temperature control below 20 degrees Celsius using dual-engine refrigerators. Few shipping companies in international maritime transportation can handle such products due to their specialized nature.

Precautions during transportation:

  1. Verify if hazardous materials comply with aviation transportation regulations in advance.
  2. Adhere to relevant regulations of the originating country, transit country, and destination country.
  3. Consignors must correctly identify, classify, package, mark, label, and prepare documents for hazardous materials in accordance with the requirements of the "Dangerous Goods Regulations," meeting the requirements of the carrying airline and the regulations of the originating, transit, and destination countries.
  4. Follow regulations related to warehousing centers and loading transportation. Hazardous materials typically need to be stored in designated hazardous goods warehouses after receipt. Different hazardous materials have explicit storage requirements, and respective countries have corresponding legal regulations. Hazardous materials should be stored separately in different warehouses according to the "Package Separation Table" in the "Dangerous Goods Regulations."